Terminated Action Plan
Spring Gentian (Gentiana verna subsp. verna)
The main purpose of the Action Plan was to preserve the lowland and mountain form Gentiana verna subsp. verna as a wild species in the Czech Republic.
Objectives of the Action Plan:
- Increase the population of the lowland form Gentiana verna verna in NNM Rovná, at least 200 plants. These plants will be able to reproduce spontaneously.
- Extend the area of occurrence of the lowland form Gentiana verna verna at least 100% in NNM Rovná.
- Establish at least three new populations of the lowland form Gentiana verna verna. New plants will be able to reproduce spontaneously.
- Maintain the current state of populations of the mountain form Gentiana verna verna in the Jeseníky Protected Landscape Area.
Evaluation of the fulfillment of the objectives of the Action Plan:
- The goal to increase the population of the lowland form of Gentiana verna verna to at least 200 individuals in the NNM Rovná cannot be achieved. The reason is the insufficient number of source individuals in the locality NNM Rovná and their low genetic variability. At the same time, NNM Rovná is a suboptimally suitable habitat for Gentiana verna subsp. verna.
- The goal to expand the occurrence of the lowland form of spring Gentiana verna verna cannot be achieved. It was not possible to expand the area of the lowland form of Gentiana verna subsp. verna despite properl management. The main reason is that the population is genetically poor, which is reflected in the decline of the seed production.
- The goal to establish at least three new populations of the lowland form of Gentiana verna verna cannot be achieved due to the absence of suitable plants for repatriation (except for clones and plants from abroad), at the same time suitable localities are currently missing. The impossibility to achieve this goal narrows the conservation solution of the species to a single locality. In this case, a solution for the species at the local level is, more effective.
- The goal to maintain the state of populations of the mountain form of spring Gentiana verna verna was achieved with regard to the results of monitoring, when the long-term stability of the population was demonstrated and new localities of occurrence of the species in the Jeseníky Protected Landscape Area were found.
Evaluation of the Action Plan:
Regular mowing and mechanical turf disturbance were performed as Action Plan management measures. Removal of competing plants and raking of fallen leaves in the surroundings of the spring gentianas was carried out annually.
Sites for repatriation of the species were continuously sought. Although a total of 6 relatively suitable sites were selected, repatriation was ultimately not undertaken due to the insufficient number of suitable individuals of the species. Population – genetic parameters such as genotype variability of populations and minimum size of the population that is able to survive were determined for the NNM Rovná site. The genotype variation was extremely low. Moreover, based on data from the year 2012, the population at the NNM Rovná did not reach the minimum number of individuals to maintain the long-term stability and survival of the population under the local conditions.
Population condition in NNM Rovná should be improved by sowing and planting new plants. The plants were pre-grown for this purpose in ex situ cultivation. A small number of individuals were successfully cultivated from explants culturess, but these individuals remained in the collection of VÚLHM and BÚ AV ČR. . Finally no seeds were collected and sown at the locality due to the reduced seed production of spring gentian in the source population (probably caused by reduction of genetic variation). Strengthening of NNM Rovná population will be possible after plant ex-situ cultivation and optimization of habitat conditions for the spring gentian survival (especially site water regime).
Termination of Action Plan:
In 2011, the activities within the spring gentian Action Plan were limited to ensuring regular management of the NNM Rovná site, species specific measures, monitoring of the populations and the groundwater level. Based on all the above facts and the impossibility to achieve the goals, the gentiana Action Plan was terminated on 31 December 2012.
The care of NNM Rovná was continued after the Action Plan termination, namely mowing, removal of competing plants and fallen leaves. Furthermore the humidity conditions and the vegetation cover are monitored annually.