Pulsatilla patens

The Eastern Pasque Flower is a competitively weak heliophilous species that is susceptible to long-term accumulation of litter, compaction of turf and overgrowing by shrubs. Most of its habitats (steppe as well as sparse pine forests) were extensively grazed by sheep and goats in the past or were affected by fires, or the vegetation was there naturally open. After World War II, important changes in land use started and traditional forms of farming were abandoned. The end of grazing and the absence of fires together with increasing eutrophication of habitats caused a rapid decline of Eastern Pasque Flower localities. Small disturbances of soil (e.g. by grazing animals) are also important for the species. Such soil exposure helps seeds to germinate and facilitates seedlings to grow. A big problem that reduces the reproductive abilities of populations is a high number of deer. Roe deer or pheasants may cause flower losses of up to 20%. Some sites are regularly disturbed by the foraging of wild boars. There have also been cases of collecting or digging out of living plants for cultivation in private gardens.